Category Media

What is dramatic monologue?

“Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;

I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.

The evil that men do lives after them;

The good is oft interred with their bones;

So let it be with Caesar…”

Strong and hard-hitting, you’re probably familiar with these lines from William Shakespeare’s well-known play, “Julius Caesar”. But did you know that this famous address by Marc Antony to the people of Rome is known as a monologue?

Dramatic monologues are popular literary devices. They are long speeches delivered by a single character on stage in a theatre production or on camera in a film. Monologues can be traced back to ancient Greek theatre. The term itself is derived from the Greek words monos (single) and legein (to speak).

Monologues offer a peek into the backstory of the character spoken about. Since a monologue turns the spotlight on a particular character, it offers that actor a unique opportunity to display his acting prowess.

But monologues are not to be confused with soliloquies, which are often internal reflections of a character on stage when alone. While a monologue is addressed to other characters and the audience, soliloquy as a device is employed when a character is talking to itself I and when it’s not meant to be heard by the other characters in the production. Soliloquy is a form of internal monologue. The “To Be or Not to Be” speech from Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” is arguably the best example of a soliloquy monologue.


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What is TRP?

Very often we hear people talking about the TRP of a TV channel or programme increasing. What does it mean? How is TRP estimated?

TRP is a metric used to measure the reach of the television. Standing for Television Rating Point, TRP tells us which programme or channel is viewed the most. TRP indicates how popular a show or channel is. The higher the TRP, the wider the viewership. In other words, TRPs indicate how many people watched which programmes or channels for how long during a particular period.

How does TRP help?

TRP helps advertisers know the pulse of the audience. Advertisements being a costly investment, advertisers need to ensure maximum reach of their ads for the benefit of their product. According to the TRP of a programme or channel, they decide where to display their ads. Higher TRP means bigger audience and more money from advertisers.

How is it measured?

The Broadcast Audience Research Council (BARC) India, a joint industry body represented by advertisers, ad agencies and broadcasters, carries out television ratings in India. It has installed a device called BAR-O-meter in over 40,000 households across the country to measure viewership of hundreds of channels. The device tracks the shows being watched and provides data on viewership patterns across age and socio-economic groups. The panel households are assumed to be representative of the country’s population and this sampling helps estimate the viewing patterns of crores of viewers.

Every Thursday, BARC releases data comparing the viewership of varied programmes and channels. However, it has announced a three-month suspension of ratings of news channels following the latest TRP manipulation scam.


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What is the career in film making?

A director’s role

The director translates a script creatively, decides the cast, costumes, venue of shoot and chooses technicians and producers to help the director manage the entire production by looking into the operational aspects that include hiring technicians, managing locations, arranging camera rentals and so on.

According to Chowdhury, the first thing one requires to become a director is a knack for films. “You need to watch a lot of films. I started watching Hindi and Bengali cinema and then moved onto foreign films,” he says.

It is equally important to acquire knowledge of all the aspects of film making. A director has to be involved in each and every process from scripting and dialogue writing to editing. “One should be able to close one’s eyes and visualize the entire film,” says Chowdhury.

Good communication and planning skills will help in conveying thoughts and ideas clearly to the entire crew and get work done on time.

What to study?

Film making is taught as part of mass media at an undergraduate level. You can opt for special courses offered by film schools for further specializations.


Film and Television Institute of India, Pune: Three year post graduate diploma in Direction and Screenplay Writing.
Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi: Master of Arts in Mass Communication.
Satyaji Ray Film and Televiison Institute, Kolkata: Three year post graduate programme in Cinema.
Xavier Institute of Communications, Mumbai: Diploma in Film, Television and Digital Video Production.


Film-making is a labourious art form, requiring a lot of hard work and discipline. “Making a film is not as simple as it looks. There are many variables at play.” says Chowdhury.  “A director has to juggle all of them.”

One should be able to make last-minute changes and at the same time stick to the budget. “Sometimes while shooting it may suddenly rain and you will have to change the location or reschedule the shoot. This can cost a lot and budgeting and planning skills are important,” he adds.

Another challenge is co-ordination and understanding of people. A director has to handle actors, (which can be a tough job) hone their skills and abilities the way it’s needed in the film. This requires an understanding of people and how to motivate them to give their best.

One should be willing to constantly learn and relearn everything they know. “You are always learning. You have to stay abreast of new technology and the latest in cinema and film-making,” adds Chowdhury.

Director’s speak

Aniruddha Roy Chowdhury fell in love with cinema when he watched his first film Haathi Mere Saathi, in a quaint single-screen cinema hall at the age of 10. But it took him a long time for his dream to be fulfilled. To begin with, Chowdhury, who directed Pink, had no idead how to get started in the industry. Coming from a middle-class background, Chowdhury was the first one in his family to venture into films. “There was no one to advise me or guide me. So I used to hang around at Tollygunge Studio in Kolkata daily to see what was happening there. At that time it was the only way I could get a peek into film-making,” says Chowdhury, quickly adding that he wouldn’t recommend this to others. Slowly, he began helping out on the sets and later took on full-time work as a film-executive at a private studio. “I slogged it out at the studio for five to six years. There was very little money, but I made it a point to familiarize myself with every aspect of film production, which is essential if you want to become a director,” adds Chowdhury.

With some experience under his belt, he moved onto making telefilms for Doordarshan, and there was no looking back after that. “I got to travel a lot and became involved in the film-making process and I realised that I have stories that I want to share with people (through films),” he adds.


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What is soap opera?


The term came into use in the 1930’s when US soap companies sponsored several radio dramas. These dramas aired for 15 to 30 minutes every day.

Most soap operas have a large cost and a long-running story. The story extends over years with hundreds of episodes. Each episode ends with a suspenseful cliff-hanger that keeps viewers coming back for more.

The soap opera genre was created by American Irna Phillips who wrote the serial Painted Dreams for radio in 1930.

Examples of popular modern soaps are Desperate Housewives and Ugly Betty in the US and in India, Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi.


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Companies use all forms of media to advertise their products and services. advertising began simply as a way of telling people about a product, but it is now much more sophisticated. It is used to present the image of a company in a certain way and also to target a particular audience that the company feels it can attract. In this way, the company associates itself with a certain lifestyle. Advertising is a huge business, with large companies investing huge sums of money in anything from sports sponsorship to putting their logo on the side of a milk carton.

Companies use advertisements as part of a marketing program to increase sales of their products and services. Advertising plays a different role at different stages of the marketing process — helping to raise awareness of a product or service, generating leads for a sales force or selling directly. Companies with retail outlets use advertising to make consumers aware of product availability and increase sales through the outlets.


Companies use advertising to make customers and prospects aware of the features and benefits of their products. If customers are not aware of your product, they will not consider it when they next make a purchasing decision for the type of product you offer. Advertising puts your product into the consumer’s set of choices.

Brand Preference

Advertising can build a preference for your product over competitors’ offerings. Your advertising messages must reflect the information that customers feel is important when choosing a product. It must also stress the quality of your product. By advertising regularly, you can reinforce the brand messages so that your product becomes first choice when the consumer next makes a purchase.

Direct Sales

Use direct response advertising to sell products directly to customers. The advertisement includes details of the product and its price together with a telephone number or website address where customers can order the product.

Retail Development

Advertising details of retailers or distributors that stock your products builds sales by driving traffic to the outlets. The advertisements can provide information on retail outlets or promote special offers available at those outlets. This type of advertising can also help you promote your products to distributors and retailers.

Lead Generation

If you market products and services through a sales force, you can use advertisements to generate leads for the team to follow up. Include a response mechanism in the advertisement such as a reply coupon, telephone number or email address so that customers can register their details in return for an incentive offer. Examples of incentives include free copies of special reports for business customers or gifts for consumers.


When a prospect is selecting a supplier for a major purchase, company reputation is an important factor in the decision. Use advertising to build a positive perception of your company. Reputation or corporate advertising communicates messages about factors such as your company’s achievements, financial stability, market success and innovation record.

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I am confused between the two

I am in Std. XII (Humanities) with an interest in history. What are the possible career options in the field of history? I am also interested in advertising and am confused between the two. Please help.

History graduates work in a wide variety of areas, e.g., business, law, politics, social service, and education. These areas may not be directly related to history, but students of history develop valuable skills in research, analysis, and oral and written communication and use this training to work in an environment suitable and use this training to work in an environment suitable for their personalities and interests.

Knowledge of history is also an asset in journalism. Newspapers and journals often give assignments to historians for the preparation of background material to enlighten the public on the historical importance of an event. History is very popular choice for various competitive examinations at state and central level like the civil services.

Advertising is a glamorous, fast-paced, high profile but serious business. An advertising agency utilizes professionals with a wide variety of talents and skills to develop memorable advertisements that promote sales for the client company. It can be a satisfying career for those who enjoy variety, excitement, creative challenges, and competition.

Though advertising offers opportunities to meet high profile people, to see their work in print, and has many perks, it is hard work and the pace is frantic. The deadlines are firm and the field is very stressful. Within the limited time, you need to show creativity and results. It’s a tightrope-walk on an everyday basis.

For a career in advertising, you need to imaginative business-oriented and be able to communicate persuasively, both orally and in writing along with an outgoing personality. On the other hand, history-related careers require proficiency in reading comprehension, writing and speaking, ability to analyse historical data and correct research.


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Who is the Celluloid Man?

Paramesh Krishnan Nair, known popularly as P.K. Nair, was an Indian film scholar and archivist. Nair was the founder-director of the NFAI who dedicated his life to archiving films for posterity. He started his journey with the NFAI in 1965 as an assistant curator. He travelled all across India to collect film reels, and created a vibrant collection over the many decades he worked with the NFAI.

Some of his important finds are reels from Dadasaheb Phalke’s Kalia Mardan, and Ardeshir Irani’s Alam Ara, the first Indian talking film.

Nair became the first director of the NFAI in 1982 and developed the framework for its functioning.

Though he got some practical training in branches of film making from film makers of Bombay, particularly Mehboob Khan, Bimal Roy and Hrishikesh Mukherjee, he realised that he did not have the ideal qualities to become a filmmaker himself. His interest lay more in the field of academics.

As advised by Jean Bhownagary of Films Division of India, he appeared for an interview at the Film and Television Institute of India (FTII), was selected and joined the institute in March 1961 in the position of research assistant. While at FTII, he assisted Marie Seton and Professor Satish Bahadur in initiating and conducting the film appreciation classes of FTII. He also conducted early work to establish the film archive set up as a separate wing of FTII. He corresponded with the curators and directors of established film archives in the UK, USA, France, Italy, Poland, Soviet Union and other countries. All of them advised an independent autonomous entity for NFAI and not as a wing of FTII.

Destructive fire and current state of preservation

A huge fire which broke out on January 8, 2003 in the Film and Television Institute of India caused massive destruction in a vault of the NFAI housed on the campus. Nearly, 1,700 nitrate film base prints perished, and 607 films in 5,097 reels were lost in the fire. Among the greatest losses for the Archive were the reels of Dadasaheb Phalke’s films Raja Harishchandra (1913), Lanka Dahan (1917), and Kaliya Mardan (1919).

In March 2019, a report submitted by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India stated that nearly 31,000 reels at the NFAI were reported lost or destroyed.

Recently, the Jayakar Bungalow on the NFAI campus was inaugurated by Prakash Javadekar, Minister of Information and Broadcasting and Environment, Forest and Climate Change. The bungalow will house a digital film library where researchers can access the NFAI’s database.


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What is The National Film Heritage Mission (NFHM)?

To preserve, conserve, digitize and restore films and ancillary material, the NFHM was setup by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. As of June 2019, the NFHM has completed assessment of the condition of nearly 1.32 lakh film reels and conservation work of the same is underway. These reels will soon be digitized.

The objectives of NFHM include assessing  the film conditions and to ascertain the left over life of films, preventive conservation of 1,32,000 film reels, 2k/4k picture and sound restoration of 1086 landmark feature films and 1152 short films; recording of new picture and sound inter-negatives of each film, digitization of 1160 feature film and 1660 short films, construction of Archival and Preservation facilities with global standards, Training and Capacity building programmes in the field of preservation facilities with global standards, training and capacity building programmes in the field of preservation and film archiving in co-ordination with international agencies. 

The Mission also aims at IT solution for effective implementation of NFHM by creation of comprehensive Web-based end to end IT management solution that will keep track of all aspects of the functioning of the mission.


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What are the different sections of the NFAI?

Preservation of films

The NFAI has 19 film preservation facilities /vaults as per international standards and specifications. The 19 vaults together can store close to two lakhs film reels.

Initially, the film collection was stored on the premises of the Film and Television Institute of India, but was later moved to the NFAI’s new building, which is also Pune, in 1994.

Research and documentation

This section of the NFAI is in charge of tracing, collecting and preserving the heritage of Indian cinema. It contains nearly 1,50,000 still photographs relating to almost every period of Indian cinema. It also contains over 24,000 film posters in various sizes, 14,000 song booklets, 1,00,000 press clippings and old disc records.

The Library

The NFAI library has over 29,000 books on cinema from around the world. It has close to 100 periodicals on cinema published in various languages and nearly 31,000 film scripts received from the Central Board of Film Certification, India.

Most of the old books, periodicals and scripts are digitized. The library is open to the public for research purposes.


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What are the workings of the National Film Archive of India?

For long, films have been a medium of enter. There are so many films made every year that people are left with endless options. Apart from entertaining people, films form an important part of a country’s heritage, throwing light on its culture and progress. To preserve this rich heritage, the National Film Archive of India (NFAI) was set up in 1964 as a media unit of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.

About the NFAI

The NFAI was created with the objective of preserving films as art and historical documents.

A member of the International Federation of Film Archives, the NFAI’s three principal objectives are – to trace, acquire and preserve for posterity the heritage of Indian cinema; to classify, document data and undertake research relating to films; and to act as a centre for the dissemination of film culture.

The NFAI has a stock of film reels, video cassettes, DVDs, books, posters, stills, clippings and audio CDs of Indian cinema since the 1910s. With its headquarters in Pune, Maharashtra, it has regional offices in Bengaluru, Kolkata, and Thiruvananthapuram.

The NFAI has several facilities and sections. It has a huge library and organises film screenings periodically for the people at its various centres. In association with the Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, it also conducts courses on film appreciation.


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