Category Career Query

What is the career in the field of Earth Sciences?

Our Earth is extremely fragile, and human activities are making it more vulnerable. One of the recent examples of the impact of indiscriminate development and climate change is the shocking collapse of a portion of the Nanda Devi glacier in Uttarakhand’s Chamoli district on February 7, 2021, and the ensuing floods that claimed many lives. The deadly disaster brings to light the need to rigorously study the impact of human activity on the environment. And that’s exactly what earth scientists do.

What is Earth Science?

Earth science is the study of the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth, the life it supports, and the processes that govern the formation and behaviour of the Earth’s materials. It seeks to find answers to questions such as how ice moves, where the mineral resources are, and the rate of permafrost thaw. Understanding these phenomena is essential to the maintenance of life on the planet.

Different branches:

  • Glaciology: Glaciologists assess the impact of climate change, look for alternatives to sustain Earth’s depleting resources, and forecast avalanches.
  • Geology: Geologists study Earth and the processes that act on its materials. It also traces the history of the planet and its life forms since origin.
  • Hydrogeology: The study of water flow on and below the Earth’s surface and its chemistry.
  • Limnology: Limnology examines lake sediments to determine past climate and ecological environments.
  • Oceanography: The study of the ocean, including its water, boundaries and topography, types of currents, and marine biology.
  • Volcanology and Seismology: The scientific study of the dynamics of volcanoes and earthquakes.

What to study?

Universities in India and abroad offer a range of courses in Earth Sciences. You can pursue a Master of Science (M.Sc) and specialise in the field of your choice. A Ph.D is required to start working in the field.

Where: India

  • Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun: Training and research programmes on Geomorphology and Environmental Geology. Geophysics, Petrology and Geochemistry
  • Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune: Dual degree programme Bachelor of Science and Master of Science
  • Sharada University. Noida, and Pondicherry University: M.Sc in Environmental Sciences
  • Bharatiya Vidyapeeth, Insitute of Environment Education and Research. Punes M.Sc in Environment Science and Technology
  • Annamalai University, Cuddalore: M.Sc Earth Sciences and PG diplomas in Petroleum and Remote Sensing


  • Utrecht University, the Netherlands, M.Sc Earth Surface and Water
  • University of Helsinki, Finland: M.Sc Geology and Geophysics
  • The University of Westent Australia: Master of Geographic Information Science
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the U.S. M.SC Atmospheres, Oceans and Climate: M.Sc Geology, Geochemistry and Geobiology; Master of Environmental Policy and Planning

What are the job prospects?

Earth scientists primarily work in research organisations and environmental monitoring agencies.

These organisations could be in the private as well as the public sector.

Depending on your field of interest, you can also work with non-profit organisations and think-tanks on environment conservation and policy. If you have an academic bent of mind, then working in a university as a professor in the field of your choice could also suit you.


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What is the career in the field of Virology?

Lockdown, social distancing, and quarantine have become an integral part of our lives over the last one year. With fear gripping the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been challenging times for doctors, health care professionals and, of course, virologists – as they had to study and research about the deadly virus and its various mutants.

While the world has found some ray of hope amid gloom – thanks to the vaccination process – most countries have stepped up their health infrastructure and research monitoring. In the recently announced Union budget, the Indian government, too, has pledged to fund four national virology institutes and nine high-containment laboratories for research and studies on infectious pathogens, making virology a viable career option.

A study of viruses and virus-like agents that affect humans, animals and plants, virology is identifying the nature of the virus and coming up with vaccines to prevent them. So if you are interested in science and have a research-orientation, the field of virology could be the perfect choice for you.

How it works

So, one may wonder what exactly is the role of virologists. Virology is definitely a challenging field, but at the same time, it is quite interesting too. Virologists examine the structure of viruses, classify them and monitor their evolution as well as their interactions with host cells and the way other living creatures fight them. Virology also focusses on the spread of infectious disease, including threats such as the common cold, rabies, yellow fever, and polio.


A plethora of opportunities are available to virologists in both the public and the private sector. In the public sector, virologists work with government institutes and laboratories. They are also in demand in the pharmaceutical sector. Working with pharma companies, virologists help develop vaccines and medicines for contagious disease and infections. Virologists can also opt for an academic life by teaching in colleges and universities. Often medical doctors specialise in virology to carry out clinical research or work with patients with such viruses. If you have a desire to educate people about viruses and infections, you can also venture into science writing after training in virology.

What to study?

To work as a virologist, you need a background in Biology, Microbiology or Immunology. To qualify as a virologist, you can opt for a Master of Science (M.Sc) in Virology offered by several colleges and universities. Some colleges also offer specialisations in Clinical Virology and Infection Biology.



  • National Institute of Virology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune: M.Sc in Virology
  • Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati: M.Sc in Virology
  • Manipal University, Karnataka: M.Sc in Clinical Virology
  • Amity Institute of Virology and Immunology, Noida: M.Sc. (Immunology), M.Sc. (Medical Microbiology), M.Sc. (Virology), and PG Diploma in Clinical Virology and Immunology


  • University of Glasgow, the U.K.: M.Sc in Infection Biology
  • University of Cambrige, the U.K.: M.Phil in Biology Science (Pathology)
  • University of Oxford, the U.K.: M.Sc Integrated Immunology


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What is the career in the field of image consultancy?

A limp handshake at a job interview, stumbling over your words during a presentation, or wearing the wrong outfit to an official meeting. Impressions can make or break your professional image. That’s where an image consultant steps in. From social graces and power dressing to dining and business etiquette, image consultants help you refine your appearance and personality.

Image consultancies or finishing schools work with a spectrum of working professionals, including successful entrepreneurs, celebrities and corporate organisations. They help cultivate their image and create personal brand that suits their goals and profession.

How it works

Image consultants offer a wide array of services such as lessons on good first impressions, the right body language and soft skills. They help in honing your communication skills and emotional intelligence. They also advise you on your digital footprint. Often programmes are customised to meet individual needs. The focus is on holistic personality development.

Image consultancy vs. personal stylist

Image consultants hold different titles such as etiquette consultants, wardrobe consultants or style coaches. But often they are mistaken for personal stylists.

While both image consultancy and personal stylists deal with the appearance of the client, image consultancy goes beyond looks to behaviour and communication skills. A personal stylist will dress you up for a particular event such as a party or a wedding whereas image consultants give recommendations on your personal styling and behaviour, which will stay with you forever.

What are the job prospects?

From working professionals to homemakers and students, people from varied backgrounds are willing to invest time and resources in building their image. This makes image consultancy a lucrative career. Image matters even for companies. The personality of a company can influence how it’s perceived in the market, its clients and revenue. So corporate too hire image consultants to train their employees to present the right professional image.\

What to study?

Many private institutes offer certification and training in image consultancy, but these can be expensive. Although you do not require any formal course or degree to start working as an image consultant, a certification from a reputed institute helps build credibility.

Many private training institutes in India and abroad offer foundation and advanced courses in image consultancy A few institutes also offer online certification



  • Image Consulting Business Institute, Mumbai, Delhi, Bengaluru; and Indian School of Image Management, Mumbai; Certificate in Image Consultancy
  • Florina Finishing School, Bengaluru and First Impression (a unit of Franknn group), Bhubaneswar, Cuttack and Amritsar: Training courses in Image Consultancy


  • The Association of Image Consultants International, the U.S.: Certificate in Image Consultancy, Certificate as Image Professional; and Certificate as Image Master
  • Blackford Centre for Image Consulting, the U.K.: Diploma in Image Consultancy


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What is gender equality?


Gender goes beyond biological sex and the binary of male or female. It is what one identifies with. And, gender equality is a human right. It refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of all humans, irrespective of whatever gender one identifies with. Which is to say, we cannot be allowed or denied something simply because we identify or don’t identify with a certain gender. We must be seen and treated as individuals.

Why is it important?

Gender equality creates an equal world. Inequality gives power and advantage to some people while excluding others. It is harmful. For instance, if you love to go to school, but are stopped from going simply because of your gender, it stops you not just from learning, but also from realizing your dream and becoming the person you want to be. This could make you unhappy, fall ill and distance yourself from others. On the other hand, when you go to school, learn, and achieve your dream, it benefits not just you but also your area of work, the people around you, and society. You will inspire many others to dream big, and be a team player too. Here’s another example. If you are excluded from doing chores at home simply because of your gender, someone else is burdened with doing your share of the work. It is possible that later on you will struggle to (learn to) do that work or feel entitled. However, when you are treated as an individual capable of doing any work, it is likely that you will grow to be independent, compassionate, secure, motivated, happy, and open-minded. Understanding that all genders are equal takes us a step closer to a happier, more compassionate and peaceful world.


  • It doesn’t matter what gender you identify with. You are free to learn any subject, play any type of games or with any toy.
  • You need not hide certain emotions simply because they are seen as “Weak” or “unfit” for your gender. As humans, we all experience different kinds of emotions, and it is good to express and learn to handle them effectively.
  • We all have unique characteristics. Use their traits – and not their gender – understand other people. No gender-based name calling or put-downs.
  • To never use one’s gender to justify or excuse their behavior.
  • No skill, role or task is tied to gender. At home or at school, everyone must work together, and take up all kinds of responsibilities.
  • Your aspirations need not be defined by your gender. You can do whatever you set out to, if you have the interest for it, and work hard.
  • To speak up when you witness gender inequality – at home or at school.

What is dramatic monologue?

“Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;

I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.

The evil that men do lives after them;

The good is oft interred with their bones;

So let it be with Caesar…”

Strong and hard-hitting, you’re probably familiar with these lines from William Shakespeare’s well-known play, “Julius Caesar”. But did you know that this famous address by Marc Antony to the people of Rome is known as a monologue?

Dramatic monologues are popular literary devices. They are long speeches delivered by a single character on stage in a theatre production or on camera in a film. Monologues can be traced back to ancient Greek theatre. The term itself is derived from the Greek words monos (single) and legein (to speak).

Monologues offer a peek into the backstory of the character spoken about. Since a monologue turns the spotlight on a particular character, it offers that actor a unique opportunity to display his acting prowess.

But monologues are not to be confused with soliloquies, which are often internal reflections of a character on stage when alone. While a monologue is addressed to other characters and the audience, soliloquy as a device is employed when a character is talking to itself I and when it’s not meant to be heard by the other characters in the production. Soliloquy is a form of internal monologue. The “To Be or Not to Be” speech from Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” is arguably the best example of a soliloquy monologue.


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What is the career in the field of sustainable architecture?

“A building is alive, like a man… Its maker gives it the soul and every wall, window and stairway to express it.” – Ayn Rand, “The Fountainhead”.

And it’s the architects who breathe life into buildings.

With the recent push towards sustainability, there is growing awareness around mindful construction in conjunction with nature. This has given rise to a fresh wave of architects who are designing eco-friendly spaces.

What is sustainable architecture?

The building and construction industry is one of the major contributors of greenhouse gas emissions. So sustainable architecture seeks to reduce the impact on the environment at every stage. This is done using locally available resources, natural materials, energy efficient and climate-friendly methods.

What to study?

To work as an architect, aspirants need a Bachelors in Architecture (B.Arch) and Masters in Architecture (M.Arch). Students from the science stream are eligible to pursue these degrees. Recently, many institutes have been offering  postgraduate specialisations in Sustainable or Green Architecture. Some institutes also provide one year diploma or short-term courses on specific subjects such as energy efficiency, rainwater harvesting, water management, sustainable building materials and waste management.

Where to study


  • National Institute of Technology, Calicut: B.Arch
  • School of Planning and Architecture, Vijaywada: M.Arch in Sustainable Architecture
  • Rachna Sansad’s Institute of Environment, Mumbai: Masters in Environmental Architecture
  • National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu: M.Arch in Energy Efficient and Sustainable Architecture.
  • Bharati Vidyapeeth, Pune: M. Arch (Sustainable Architecture).
  • Centre for Environmental Planning and Technologuy University, Ahmedabad: Masters in Urban Design, and M.Arch in Conservation and Regeneration
  • Sir J.J.School of Architecture, Mumbai: B.Arch and M. Arch


  • Nottingham University, the U.K.: M.Arch (Architecture and Sustainable Design)
  • University of Greenwich, the U.K.: M.Sc (Sustainable Building Design and Engineering)
  • University of Leeds, School of Earth & Environment, the U.K.: M.Sc (Sustainable Cities)
  • Centre for Alternative Technology, Graduate School of the Environment, the U.K.: M.Sc Sustainability and adaptation in the Built Environment; M.Sc Green Building, and M. Arch (Sustainable Architecture).
  • National University of Singapore: Masters in Urban Design

Required skills

  • Enhanced design abilities
  • Technical and software skills
  • A holistic perspective of environmental sustainability
  • Knowledge of global and local environmental issues
  • Ability to come up with innovative solutions


In India, green building rating systems such as the Indian Green Building Council’s rating system and Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment offer training courses and opportunities to accreditation for green building professionals.


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What is the career in the field of cognitive science?

What is cognitive science?

Cognitive science is the study of the mind- its inner workings and complexities. Through different disciplines (including psychology, neuroscience and philosophy) it tries to offer multi-faceted explanations of individual and social behaviour.

How it works?

Cognitive scientists try to understand cognitive processes such as memory, language, human reasoning, creativity. They look at how these processes affect our ability to experience the world around us

This study can be applied towards understanding and developing education tools, better virtual user interfaces, and even artificial intelligence.

What are the job prospects?

The interdisciplinary nature of cognitive science provides students with the opportunity to pursue careers ranging from science to technology to law. Today, cognitive science is playing a crucial role in developing artificial intelligence and machine-learning, Cognitive scientists apply their knowledge of the human mind to develop machines that can mirror human functions.

Some of the other avenues open to students of cognitive science are software development user experience / user interface design game design, data science and data analysis, communications and mobile systems, medical technology and analysis.

Students can also work in other fields that value good writing and analytic thought along with technical and research skills. These include neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation law, technical writing, science communication and public engagement, and marketing and consumer behaviour.

What to study

Many universities in India and abroad offer undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate courses in Cognitive Science.


  • Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur: Minor in Cognitive Science; Master of Science (M.S.) in Cognitive Science
  • Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Allahabad: Master of Science in Cognitive Science
  • Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Sciences, Bengaluru: Postgraduate courses in Cognitive Science
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the U.S.: Undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in Brain and Cognitive Science
  • Yale University, the U.S.: Undergraduate programme in Cognitive Science
  • University of Pennsylvania, the U.S.: Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) and Master of Arts (M.A.) in Cognitive Neuroscience; Computation and Cognition; and Language and Mind.


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What are the opportunities in comic book industry?

The term comic book often brings to mind colourful images of gallant superheroes swooping in to save the day from the evil schemes of ghostly villians. But comic books can be more than just entertaining, they can offer a lucrative career path.

Comics are no longer limited to books and newspaper columns alone. Thanks to the popularity of graphic novels, manga and films-based on comic books, the industry is expanding and opening up myriad career options.

Who is a comic book artist?

A comic book artist illustrates books by drawing characters and scenes. Some artists also write stories and dialogue.

How it works

  • Storyboard artists: Artists with cinematography and editing knowledge are hired by production houses to draw up storyboards for films. A storyboard is illustrations displayed in a sequence for visualising a film.
  • Animated films: Professionals with a background in comics industry are roped in by animation studios to work on their projects and films.
  • Graphic novels: Many Indian writers have ventured into graphic novels. More and more original characters – especially those based on characters from Indian mythology – are emerging.
  • Commercial projects: Illustrating and creating mascots for sports teams. Ad agencies, restaurants and retail chains also hire comic book artists to reach out to customers using humour.

Required skills

One of the most important skills required in this profession is a vivid imagination. Comic book artists have to actively create new characters and worlds. Drawing skills are also equally essential. Writing for comic books requires additional skills. It requires you to understand the comic language, where pictures speak louder than words. So the writer must be a visual communicator.

What to study

Anyone with drawing skills and an imagination can become a comic book artist. Unlike other professions, a multifaceted background helps in this line. While a formal education is not always necessary for a career in this field, enrolling in an art school usually helps artists strengthen their skills. It can help them leam the basics and acquire a variety of different skills to add to their portfolio. You can major in animation, sequential art or illustration.

Where to study:

  • Venkateshwara Open University: Master of Arts (M.A.) in Drawing and Painting
  • College of Art, New Delhi: Diploma in Fine Arts
  • Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur: Bachelor of Fine Arts (Drawing and Painting).
  • National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad: Bachelor of Design (B.Des.) and Master of Design (M. Des.)


  • Camberwell College of Arts, University of Arts, London: Short courses in Introduction to Illustration Online
  • Brighton University, the U.K.: Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) (Hons.) Illustration.


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What is the career in the field of meteorology?

Real-time and accurate information on weather are critical factors in predicting and responding to extreme weather events such as cyclones and floods. With such events increasing, the demand for personnel in the field of meteorology is increasing.

How it works

By analysing international climatic trends, meteorologists can calculate the threat of global warming and even predict catastrophic dust storms and cyclones such as the cyclone Nivar that recently hit Tamil Nadu.

As a meteorologist you can join the Met Office, the government body for weather forecasting and research. You can also work with environmental agencies for research on global warming and climate change.

Often meteorologists team up with atmospheric chemists and other scientists in the Pollution Control Board to track pollution levels that affect the air quality of cities.

You can also work as a weather forecaster for radio and television.

Required skills

An in-depth knowledge of Mathematics and Physics is key, coupled with a keen interest in environmental issues. Since a meteorologist’s work involves observing and interpreting large amounts of data, communication skills are important too.

You also need to have the ability to handle extreme pressure, especially during adverse conditions such as cyclones or thunderstorms.

Excellent computer skills are a must as meteorology depends on advanced technology and software. Dedication and willingness to put in long hours is equally essential.

What to study

Those aspiring to work as scientific assistants with the Indian Meteorological Department need to appear for the staff selection commission exam. You need to be a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) with Physics and Maths or a Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) or Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) with Computer Science or Electronics to qualify. For a position as a meteorologist, you need to further pursue a Masters and crack the Union Public Service Commission exam. Meteorologists have more responsibilities than scientific assistants. Experienced meteorologists are in demand in the private sector as well.

Where to study

  • Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam: M.Sc in Meteorology.
  • Cochin University of Science and Technology: M.Sc in Environmental Technology.
  • Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune:  Research in Science of Climate Change; Advanced Training in Earth System Sciences and Climate.


  • University of Birmingham, the U.K.: M.Sc Applied Meteorology and Climatology: B.Sc Environmental Science,
  • University of Exeter, the U.K.: M.Sc Mathematics (Climate Science).
  • University College, London: M.Sc Climate Change.

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What is the career in Geoinformatics?

Maps are no longer just pieces of paper connecting one place to another. Today, they help us drive to unfamiliar places, have food delivered to our doorstep and have a cab pick us up within minutes. This is all thanks to the geoinformatics (GIS) and remote sensing technology, which is used in navigation and several apps. As the technology advances, it has opened up a plethora of career avenues.

What is GIS?

Geoinformatics is a specialised field necessitating expert knowledge. A GIS professional interprets and understands geographical data and presents it in a way people can access easily. They build and maintain GIS databases, use the technology to analyse spatial and non spatial information. GIS professionals hold a wide variety of job titles, including GIS Analyst, GIS Technician, and Cartographer.

What is the scope?

GIS professionals can work in different organisations. In the government sector, job prospects include government space agencies, research institutes, national informatics centre, agricultural research institute, among others. There are growing opportunities in the private sector as well with companies discovering the benefits of geoinformatics.

Environmental agencies, survey and mapping organisations, mineral exploration, utility companies, emergency services, public health and epidemiology, international organisations, crime mapping, transportation and infrastructure, tourism industry, market analysis and e-commerce are some of the other avenues available in this field.

Job profiles range from scientist project co-ordinator, project scientist and technical assistant to research scholar, research associate, GIS expert and GIS environment analyst in private sector.

What to study

Students specialising in Geography, Geology: Agriculture, Engineering,. Information Technology or Computer Science can gain admission to Master of Science (M.Sc.). Master of Technology (M.Tech.) courses in Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing. There is also the option to follow it up with Ph.D. programmes


  • Indian Institute of Remote Sensing and Sensing: Dehradun: M.Tech. (RS & GIS) conducted in collaboration with Andhra University, Visakhapatnam: M.Sc in Geoinformatics conducted in collaboration with the Faculty of Geo information Science & Earth Observation of the University of Twente, the Netherlands
  • Birla Institute of Technology: Ranchi, Extension centres – Kolkata, Jaipur. MSc. in Geoinformatics
  • National Remote Sensing Agency: Hyderabad: Training courses in in geo spatial technology
  • ISRO, Bengalund Training in the field of Remote Sensing: Geo-informatics and GPS Technology for Natural Resources and Disaster Management for Master of Engineering (M.E), M.Sc. M. Tech, Master of Computer Applications students
  • Symbiosis Institute of Geoinformatics, Pune: M.Sc. in Geoinformatics.


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