Category Agriculture


Machinery has made it possible for the work of a dozen farm workers to be done twice as quickly by one worker. There are fewer people working on the land in developed countries than ever before. Machinery exacts a price from the environment as well, as hedges and ditches are removed to allow larger machines to work the enormous fields. Crops have been bred for the machine age, too. They need to ripen together, not over a period of time, so that machinery can harvest them in one operation.

Farm machinery, mechanical devices, including tractors and implements, used in farming to save labour. Farm machines include a great variety of devices with a wide range of complexity: from simple hand-held implements used since prehistoric times to the complex harvesters of modern mechanized agriculture.

The operations of farming for which machines are used are diverse. For crop production they include handling of residues from previous crops; primary and secondary tillage of the soil; fertilizer distribution and application; seeding, planting, and transplanting; cultivation; pest control; harvesting; transportation; storage; premarketing processing; drainage; irrigation and erosion control; and water conservation. Livestock production, which not so long ago depended primarily on the pitchfork and scoop shovel, now uses many complicated and highly sophisticated machines for handling water, feed, bedding, and manure, as well as for the many special operations involved in producing milk and eggs.

In the early 19th century, animals were the chief source of power in farming. Later in the century, steam power gained in importance. During World War gasoline- (petrol-) powered tractors became common, and diesel engines later became prevalent. In the developed countries, the number of farm workers has steadily declined in the 20th century, while farm production has increased because of the use of machinery.


Fishing in the open seas is expensive, dangerous and increasingly difficult as some fish stocks diminish. Fish farming involves using lakes, rivers and netted-off coastal areas to raise fish that can be harvested more easily. Freshwater fish and shellfish have been most success-fully farmed in this way. Many deep-sea fish require conditions that are impossible to recreate in managed waters.

Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds, usually for food. It is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or supplement a species’ natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Worldwide, the most important fish species produced in fish farming are carp, tilapia, salmon, and catfish.

Demand is increasing for fish and fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries. China provides 62% of the world’s farmed fish. As of 2016, more than 50% of seafood was produced by aquaculture.

Farming carnivorous fish, such as salmon, does not always reduce pressure on wild fisheries. Carnivorous farmed fish are usually fed fishmeal and fish oil extracted from wild forage fish. The 2008 global returns for fish farming recorded by the totaled 33.8 million tons worth about $US 60 billion.


Livestock is farmed chiefly to supply foods such as meat, eggs and milk, but also for leather, fur and wool. Animal by-products may also include glue, gelatin and fertilizer.

The term “livestock” refers to any domesticated, land-living animal that is raised to provide resources like meat, milk, eggs, and feathers, or to provide services like transportation or cultivation assistance. Buffalo, cows, ducks, goats, and horses are just a few examples of animals that fall into this broad category.

Livestock are raised around the globe, both on small scales—generally for subsistence or local trade—and in massive industrial operations supplying international markets. The sheer mass of these animals is hard to fathom: The combined weight of cattle, chickens, and pigs exceeds the weight of all wild animals and humans combined.

22.8 billion Chickens

Chickens are far and away the most numerous type of livestock on the planet. There are about 135 chickens for every cow—and three for every human.

Wild chickens are believed to have originated in northern China, and were eventually domesticated in Southeast Asia more than 5,000 years ago. China remains the world’s leading producer of chickens, claiming over 20 percent of the global chicken supply. However, the birds are now raised on every continent except Antarctica, where they are banned. Globally, chicken consumption is on the rise, outpacing the growth in consumption of other meats, like beef or pork. But growing demand for eggs has also contributed to chickens’ dominance.

1.5 billion Cattle

Cattle are the second most common livestock animal. Their domestication is thought to have occurred roughly 10,500 years ago, in what is now considered the Middle East.

Today, these animals are especially prevalent in South America, where they’re primarily raised for meat, and in India, where the animals are conversely valued for the dairy products they produce. Cows are revered in Hinduism, India’s majority religion, and most Indian states have regulation prohibiting, or at least regulating, the slaughter of cattle.

1.2 billion Sheep

Sheep are believed to be one of the first domesticated animals, and are common throughout the Old World. They’re especially prevalent in northeastern China, Central Asia, and North Africa, but are also raised intensively in New Zealand and Australia.

Although New Zealand is famous for having more resident sheep than people (with roughly six sheep for every person), it actually ranks third in terms of sheep per capita. Mongolia has a 10:1 ratio of sheep to humans, while the Falkland Islands, a British territory off the eastern coast of Argentina, boast more than 200 sheep per capita.

967 million pigs 

The sixth most common livestock animal is the humble pig, which is descended from the significantly more formidable wild boar. Pig production is localized to a few high-intensity areas in China, northern Europe, and the American Midwest. Nearly half of the world’s pigs are raised in China alone.

Excluding areas where pork is not customarily consumed—including North Africa, the Middle East, and other predominately Muslim regions—pig production is on the rise.

From 1960 to 2010, the number of pigs on the planet grew by 250 percent, while the size of individual pigs nearly doubled. This growth is attributed to increased demand for animal protein in the regions where pigs are already consumed.


In Europe in the Middle Ages, large fields were often divided into strips, with individuals farming their strip as intensively as possible. Since little was under-stood about the nutrients that plants need and the use of fertilizers, the soil in these strips soon became exhausted, with poorer and poorer yields resulting. The Agricultural Revolution was a change in farming practice that took place gradually during the eighteenth century. The technique of resting ground for a year (leaving it fallow) and rotating crops, so that the same crop was not grown year after year on the same plot, was tested and found to improve harvests. A two-year rotation and later three- and four-year rotations came to be widely practiced.

The Agricultural Revolution was a major event in world history and had a profound effect on populations throughout Europe and other historical events.  For example, many historians consider the Agricultural Revolution to be a major cause of the Industrial Revolution, especially in terms of when and how it began in Britain.  For example, the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 18th century due in part to an increase in food production, which was the key outcome of the Agricultural Revolution.  As such, the Agricultural Revolution is considered to have begun in the 17th century and continued throughout the centuries that followed, alongside the Industrial Revolution.

In the centuries before the start of the Agricultural Revolution, European farmers practised a form of farming in which they planted the same crop in the same field every year.  This would cause them to have to not plant anything in the field every few years in order to avoid destroying the quality of the soil.  However, Charles Townshend, a British statesman, identified a way to improve farming practises and thus produce more food.  In the 1730s, he discovered that by growing different types of crops in the fields year after year, British farmers did not have to leave a field for a growing season.  For example, he argued that in one year the farmers should grow a cereal grain such as whet or barley and in a following year they should grow a vegetable crop such as turnips.  By doing so, a farmer could grow food in a field every year without diminishing the ability of the soil.  For his discovery, he became known as ‘Turnip Townshend’.  In general, this allowed British farmers to grow more food, which in turn helped lead to an increase in the population of British citizens.  The increased population was important to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution because it created a large workforce for the factories and mines that would be common during the time.

A key aspect of the Industrial Revolution was the invention of different types of machines, many of which were used in farming and agriculture.  For example, Jethro Tull is famous for his invention of the seed drill which had a profound effect on the Agricultural Revolution and, in turn, the Industrial Revolution.  Tull worked on his father’s farm in England and noticed that some of the traditional farming practices were very inefficient.  For example, he was particularly concerned with how seeds were drilled into the soil by hand, which was very slow and required a lot of labor on the part of farmers. As a result, Tull invented a seed drill with a rotating cylinder to drill the seeds into the soil. This made the planting process much quicker.  As well, the seed drill allowed crops to be planted in straight rows, which allowed the farmers to use less seeds while making weeding of the crops easier and more efficient.


Not all crops are grown for human or animal food. Cotton, flax and jute are grown to be made into fabric. Esparto grass may be cultivated for the manufacture of rope and paper. Tobacco is grown for smoking, while bamboo canes have hundreds of varied uses.

Other non-food crops, such as lavender, are grown for the perfume and cosmetics industries.

Castor: In 1960s, more than 20,000 acres were grown around Lubbock and processed in oil mills. Today there is no commercial production due to cheaper imports but there are some reports of 10 acres for planting seed. Castor produces a high quality oil used in industrial equipment, paints, aircraft and space lubricants, and other uses; less than 1% is fed to youth as a laxative. Seed contains ricinine which is highly toxic if eaten. Castor is now on the Homeland Security biohazard list after years of open production in the U.S.

Christmas trees: Planted on 1,500 acres, 90% are east of I-35 and on sandy soils; 70% are Virginia pine, 20% Afghan pine, and 5% Layland cypress. Seedlings planted, frequently drip irrigated to assure summer growth; requires good weed control to get bottom limb growth. Pruning and shaping essential for market-ability. Pines may be sprayed with a dye for more intense green coloration. Usually harvested after 5 years, with gross sales of $10,000 per harvested acre (average of $2,000 per planted acre if sequential plantings). No major disease problems but pine tip moth requires treatment every year and aphids in some years. Most tree farms are near metro centers for seasonal marketing and family experiences.

Flax: No flax is raised today but prior to 1970, flax was grown on 40,000 acres in South Texas. Winter-hardy varieties were short-strawed to maximize seed yields for production of linseed oil, an unsaturated oil used in paints. Flax, a winter annual, was cultured similar to small grains, seed was sold through a cooperative at Karnes City and shipped north. Some flax straw was baled for paper but the last unsold large supply mysteriously caught fire. Fiber varieties are typically taller but not raised in Texas.

Guayule: This North American crop was grown on 30,000 acres during World War II to supply natural rubber. This slow growing perennial does well in desert areas. Small experimental/observation plots with Firestone near Fort Stockton. In AZ, Yulex, Inc. has planted 500 acres in a quest to produce a natural latex for high-end medical and surgical products with non-allergenic properties. Yields average 1,000 pounds of guayule rubber per acre worth 40 cents per pound. In AZ, a pilot plant is designed to handle 750 tons of biomass in anticipation of producing natural latex; if successful, then plans to expand production to NM and TX.

Hemp/Marijuana: Originally an important cordage crop, raised for fiber in early days for burlap bags used for shipping. Now grown for seed and leaves for narcotic resin from Cannabis in small hidden plots of 0.1 to 0.5 acres in secluded areas along creek banks. Larger plots (5 acres or more) may be hidden if by tall crops such as forests or corn. While no firm statistics are available on the acreage producers, estimates range from 1,000 to 2,800 acres, with 80% of the production east of I-35 and remainder within 80 miles of metro centers, such as Austin. The real weeds are controlled by hand hoeing and selective herbicides but no pesticides are labeled. Diseases include Fusarium wilt and bacterial leaf diseases. In many states “medicinal hemp” sales exceed those of any other crop.

Kenaf: A new alterative crop was evaluated in LRGV without economic success. Some acres still maintained for seed production. Some production in Mississippi for newspaper fiber. Crop is desiccated by frost; chopped material stored in modules before processing. Few pests but potential concerns for white fly, powdery mildew, leaf spot, cotton root rot, and leaf deformation.

Lesquerella: A perennial shrub-like plant common in the desert, selected and cultivated for production of high quality industrial oil, similar to castor, with on-going research at Pecos, TX and AZ. No commercial production in Texas but 50 acres are planted for research in cooperation with AZ. Irrigated production usually yields 1,800 pounds of seed per acre; would require a price of 15 to 20 cents/pound to be profitable. Produces best if fall-planted, irrigated, and level ground for combine harvesting. Meal may be fed to livestock after oil is extracted.


Although there are thousands of edible plant species, only a relatively small number have been domesticated, i.e. converted to widespread usage by humans. Three crops—wheat, corn, and rice—provide nearly 60 percent of total plant calories that humans consume. Other major crops include potatoes, soybeans, cassava, sorghum, and legumes. The three top crops are grown worldwide, though certain regions are known for specific crops. For example, the United States supplies almost half of the world’s 800 million tons of corn annually, followed by China, Brazil, and Mexico. China, India, and the U.S. are the largest wheat producers, and almost 95 percent of all rice is grown in Asia. And, while 16 percent of total wheat production reaches the world’s markets, rice is primarily consumed where it is grown and only 5 percent makes it to the world market.

Wheat is one of the oldest cultivated crops, beginning around 10,000 years ago in the area known today as the “Fertile Crescent” between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Evidence suggests that wheat was used for making bread in Egypt by 5000 BC and its cultivation had spread to Europe by 4000 BC. Although the U.S. is the third largest wheat producer in the world, large-scale cultivation did not begin until the late 1800s when European settlement moved into the central plains. Today, approximately 700 million tons of wheat are grown annually around the world.

Rice continues to be a critical staple for nearly half of the world’s population, and for whom rice cultivation is the sole or primary source of food. Although rice is a good carbohydrate source, it does not provide adequate nutrition—an issue of increasing concern in the developing world where almost three billion people obtain most of their daily nutrients from rice. These populations can suffer from micronutrient deficiencies, most notably a lack of vitamin A.

Corn (or maize) is thought to be a domesticated version of the wild cereal grass teosinte, and was likely cultivated between three and four thousand years ago in Mesoamerica. It is still one of the most common crops grown in the Americas. Only about one percent of the corn that is grown is eaten as whole or processed grain (sweet corn, corn chips, or tamales); more than 50 percent is used as animal feed—primarily for cattle, hogs, and chickens—and the remainder is consumed either as starch or in the form of corn sweeteners. More recently, an increasing amount of land area has been dedicated to growing corn due to the demand for ethanol, a corn-based fuel. In 2007, ethanol production became the second largest use of corn grown in the U.S. The sustainability of this use is controversial.


Arable farming is the growing and harvesting of crops, particularly where the ground is ploughed between harvests, as the term comes from the Latin word for ploughing. Arable farming is of enormous importance to the world’s population, since most of us rely on grains or vegetables for our staple foods.

Arable farming means growing crops in fields, which have usually been ploughed before planting. Arable crops are generally annual – they need to be replanted each year.

Land is cultivated (prepared by ploughing) in autumn or spring, and the crop is planted. It grows through the spring and summer, and is harvested in late summer or autumn. The land is then cultivated again for another crop or returned to pasture for one or more years.

Cereal farming requires vast cultivable expanses, a significant labour force and appropriate tools. This method of farming is nonetheless similar to that of market gardening. Ploughing, sowing, fertilising, irrigating and treating are steps that have been followed for thousands of years to ensure an adequate yield and an abundant harvest. Arable farming in industrialised countries now relies on a variety of specialist mechanical devices.

From sowing to harvesting, intensive cereal farming follows a similar chain of events to market gardening, only on a larger scale. Current cereal crops are mostly grown in open fields, whereas tubers, such as potatoes, can also be grown in greenhouses. Both practices require a lot of space and tools, as well as a sizeable workforce. A feature of cereal farming is that it varies according to specific type of soil and way of farming each cereal needs.

The first stage in cereal and tuber cultivation is ploughing. This involves turning the soil over to aerate it, removing residue from former crops and digging furrows. With intensive farming, chemical fertilizers are then applied to the newly ploughed soil, whereas extensive farming relies on the soil’s natural resources and alternates crops on a yearly basis.

Early missionaries were the first to grow wheat and oats in New Zealand. In the first half of the 19th century some North Island M?ori communities grew wheat, which they sold to settlers, exported to Sydney, or used themselves.

New Zealand Company settlements, such as Wellington, Nelson and Whanganui, were intended to be based on arable production rather than animal farming. However, at that stage there was a limited export market for crops, but a huge market for animal products – initially for wool and later for meat and dairy production. Cropping remained important in some areas, particularly the Canterbury Plains and North Otago, where summer conditions were ideal for maturing grain crops.

Fertile minds


I am a non-medical student studying in class XI in a public school. I wish to become a director of agriculture. I want to take admission in Punjab University (LDH). Could you tell me the exact procedure?

Our best wishes are with you in your career dream. However, your journey will have to begin with a graduation in agriculture sciences. Punjab Agricultural University is a state university offering a number of courses like B.Sc. Agri. (Hons.) of four years’ duration, bachelor of veterinary science and animal husbandry of five years, and B.Sc. (Hons.) Home Science 4-year (for girls only). However, it’s the first course that would interest you. For admission to Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, one should have done 10+2 or equivalent in science/agriculture with physics, chemistry and mathematics/ biology/agriculture with at least 50% marks in aggregate. Admission is done on the basis of Common Admission Test, held sometime in June.


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