Category Rivers

Which river flows in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve?

The Moyar river flows downstream into the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and is the natural line of division between Mudumalai and Bandipur Sanctuary.

The Western Ghats Nilgiri Sub-Cluster of 6,000 Km2, including all of Mudumalai National Park, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.

A variety of habitats ranging from Tropical Evergreen forest, Moist mixed deciduous, Moist Teak forest, Dry teak forest, Secondary grass lands, Shrubs and Swamps exists here.

There is a high diversity of animal life in the park with about 50 species of fishes, 21 species of amphibians, 34 species of reptiles, 200 species of birds and 50 species of mammals.

The park is ideal home to several endangered and vulnerable species including Elephant, Tiger, Gaur, Leopard, Deer, Wild dog etc.  There are about 200 species of birds in the park, including White rumped vulture, Long billed vulture, Red crest, Mynas, Parakeets, Owls etc.

Mudumalai National Park is located in the Nilgiris district of the state of Tamil Nadu. Mudumalai National Park is a part of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary.

Mudumalai National Park is situated at the tri-junction of the three southern states of Tamilnadu, Kerala, and Karnataka.

The Sanctuary shares its boundaries with the states of Karnataka and Kerala.


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Which river flows into neighbouring Tamil Nadu before draining into the sea at Poompuhar?

Cauvery water enters Tamil Nadu from Karnataka at Dabhakuzhi near Biligundulu in Dharmapuri district and the river endures rampant pollution from Mettur till the time it enters the sea in Poompuhar.

Cauvery is pumped from a place 100 km away from Bengaluru, making it Asia’s costliest water. The city receives about 1,390 million litres per day (MLD) water, and sewage of an equal amount or more is generated. The Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board has 24 sewage treatment plants capable of treating only about 760 MLD. Remaining sewage flows directly into the lakes.

auvery’s tributaries, Noyyal and Bhavani, carry a considerable amount of pollution. The Noyyal is as good as dead due to effluents released by more than 700 dyeing units in Tiruppur. From Karur to Tiruchirapalli, the river flows at its broadest and is called Akanda Cauvery. Here, the river is put to severe stress due to rampant sand mining, which goes unabated till date despite numerous strictures by the Madras High Court.

Though the polluted water undergoes some natural cleaning process by the time it reaches the Delta region, letting of sewage and dumping of garbage and hospital waste into the river pollute it further, making the water unfit for drinking and sometimes even for irrigation.

Activists allege that the industries in the Cauvery belt release untreated effluents into the river during the night to escape the wrath of local people. The paper mill owned by the Tamil Nadu government near Karur is also a major cause for 
water pollution in the area and activists allege the factories on the banks of the river consume more water than they are allowed to pump.


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In which state does the Rushikulya River flow?

The Rushikulya River is one of the major rivers in the state of Odisha and covers entire catchment area in the districts of Kandhamal and Ganjam of Odisha. The river flows from the Daringbadi hill station in Kandhamal district. In the Ganjam district it flows through Surada, Dharakote, Asika, Pitala, Purusottampur, Taratarini, Pratappur, Alladigam, Brahmapur, Ganjam and the Chhatrapur block. The river is 165 km long with a total catchment area of 7700 km2.

A number of large scale industries have been set up in the basin. Among them are Grasim Industries Ltd-Ganjam Chemical Division (formerly Jayashree Chemical Ltd). Aska Co-operative Sugar Industries Ltd. Nuagam, Aska Spinning Mills, Monorama Chemical Works Ltd., Orissa Tubes Pvt. Ltd., etc. There are about 3360 numbers of small scale industries of different categories mainly food and allied, forest & wood based, rubber and plastic products and glass and ceramics. There is enough scope for setting up forest based industries. The basin is rich in mineral wealth. The major economic minerals are clay, limestone, manganese, sand talc, black sand and grinding materials.


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From which country does the Himalayan River Manas flow into India?

The river flows through Bhutan in a south-west direction between two ranges of the Lower Himalayas in V-shaped gorges and enters into Assam in India into the south-central foot hills of the Himalayas.

The river valley has two major reserve forest areas, namely the Royal Manas National Park (43,854 hectares (108,370 acres), established in 1966) in Bhutan and the contiguous Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (391,000 hectares (970,000 acres) in 1955 increased to 95,000 hectares (230,000 acres) in December 1985) encompassing Project Tiger reserve, an elephant reserve and a biosphere reserve, which constitutes a UNESCO World Heritage Site declared in December 1985.

The Manas River drains 41,350 square kilometres (15,970 sq mi) of eastern Bhutan and northeast India. It has three major branches: the Drangme Chhu, Mangde Chhu, and Bumthang Chhu that cover most of eastern Bhutan, with the Tongsa and Bumthang valleys also forming part of its catchment. The area drained in Bhutan territory is 18,300 km2 and is bound by the geographical coordinates 26.217°N 90.633°E. A part of the main stem of the river rises in the southern Tibet before entering into India at Bumla pass at the northwestern corner of Arunachal Pradesh.

Out of the large catchment of the river valley, protected or reserved areas have been specifically demarcated, both in Bhutan and India, which are declared national parks or sanctuaries. The two reserved forest and wild life areas cover an area of 9,938.54 square kilometres (3,837.29 sq mi), which account for about 24% of the total catchment area of 41,350 square kilometres (15,970 sq mi) of the Manas river valley; brief details are provided.


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Which river is largely referred to as Tsangpo throughout its upper case?

The Brahmaputra called Yarlung Tsangpo in Tibet, Siang/Dihang River, in Arunachal Pradesh and Luit, Dilao in Assam, is a trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, India and Bangladesh. It is the ninth largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest.

The BrahmaputraRiver originates in the Chemayungdung mountain ranges which nearly sixty miles south-east of Mansarovar lake in the MountKailash range in Southern Tibet at an elevation of 5300 m.A spring called Tamchok Khambab spills from the glaciers which later gather breath and volume to become the Tsangpo, the highest river in world.

Apart from the name Tsangpo, the Brahmaputra is also known by its Chinese name, Yarlung Zangbo in Tibet.  There are several tributaries of Tsangpo in Tibet. Before entering India, the river passes Pi (Pe) in Tibet and suddenly turns to the north and northeast and cuts a course through a succession of great narrow gorges between the mountain Gyala Peri and Namjabarwa (Namcha Barwa) in a series of rapids and cascades.

In India the total basin area of BrahmaputraRiver is 197 316 sq. km. which 5.9% of the total geographic area of the country. In India the river is spread over states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Sikkim.


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The Harappan civilization flourished around which river valley?

The Harappan civilization was located in the Indus River valley. Its two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, were located in present-day Pakistan’s Punjab and Sindh provinces, respectively. Its extent reached as far south as the Gulf of Khambhat and as far east as the Yamuna (Jumna) River.

Before the excavation of these Harappan cities, scholars thought that Indian civilization had begun in the Ganges valley as Aryan immigrants from Persia and central Asia populated the region around 1250 BCE. The discovery of ancient Harappan cities unsettled that conception and moved the timeline back another 1500 years,situating the Indus Valley Civilization in an entirely different environmental context.

The Indus River Valley Civilization is considered a Bronze Age society; inhabitants of the ancient Indus River Valley developed new techniques in metallurgy—the science of working with copper, bronze, lead, and tin. Harappans also performed intricate handicraft using products made of the semi-precious gemstone Carnelian.


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On which river bank is the Taj Mahal situated?

 The Taj Mahal was built on the banks of the river Yamuna, between 1631 and 1643, by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a mausoleum for his beloved wife Arjumand Banu Begum, who was also known by the title Mumtaz Mahal. 

The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage”. It is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India’s rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year and in 2007, it was declared a winner of the New 7 Wonders of the World (2000–2007) initiative.

The Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on design traditions of Persian and earlier Mughal architecture. Specific inspiration came from successful Timurid and Mughal buildings including the Gur-e Amir (the tomb of Timur, progenitor of the Mughal dynasty, in Samarkand), Humayun’s Tomb which inspired the Charbagh gardens and hasht-behesht (architecture) plan of the site, Itmad-Ud-Daulah’s Tomb (sometimes called the Baby Taj), and Shah Jahan’s own Jama Masjid in Delhi. While earlier Mughal buildings were primarily constructed of red sandstone, Shah Jahan promoted the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones. Buildings under his patronage reached new levels of refinement.


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Which is the last Indian State the Himalayan River Ganges enters before flowing into Bangladesh and eventually into the Bay of Bengal?

 West Bengal is the last Indian state that the Ganges enters, and, after it flows into Bangladesh, the Mahananda River joins it from the north. In West Bengal in India, as well as in Bangladesh, the Ganges is locally called the Padma. The westernmost distributaries of the delta are the Bhagirathi and the Hugli (Hooghly) rivers, on the east bank of which stands the huge metropolis of Kolkata (Calcutta). The Hugli itself is joined by two tributaries flowing in from the west, the Damodar and the Rupnarayan. As the Ganges passes from West Bengal into Bangladesh, a number of distributaries branch off to the south into the river’s vast delta. In Bangladesh the Ganges is joined by the mighty Brahmaputra (which is called the Jamuna in Bangladesh) near Goalundo Ghat. The combined stream, there called the Padma, joins with the Meghna River above Chandpur. The waters then flow through the delta region to the Bay of Bengal via innumerable channels, the largest of which is known as the Meghna estuary.

The rivers in the West Bengal area are sluggish; little water passes down them to the sea. In the Bangladeshi delta region, the rivers are broad and active, carrying plentiful water and connected by innumerable creeks. During the rains (June to October) the greater part of the region is flooded to a depth of 3 or more feet (at least 1 metre), leaving the villages and homesteads, which are built on artificially raised land, isolated above the floodwaters. Communication between settlements during that season can be accomplished only by boat.


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Which is the longest river in Australia?

The calculations confirmed that Australia’s longest single river is the River Murray at 2508 kilometres. However, if the longest tributaries of the Darling River, the Culgoa, Balonne and Condamine, are taken into account its total length increases to 2740 kilometres, making it Australia’s longest waterway.

The National Topographic Database is a nationally consistent dataset containing a range of topographic features, such as relief and drainage, which has been captured and maintained at a scale of 1:250 000 for the whole of Australia. Use of the database to digitally calculate the longest rivers has resulted in more precise estimates than those available previously.

The Murray River was first discovered by European explorers Hamilton H. Hume and William H. Hovell in 1824. It wasn’t until five years later, however, that Charles Sturt navigated down the Murrumbidgee to encounter the Murray and named it after Sir George Murray, (Soldier and Tory Party Politician 1772-1846) when his exploration party encountered the Darling connection. Sturt had previously explored the Darling River to the north and was able to determine that they were indeed the same river system.

The Murray River is the world’s 16th-longest river at 2,520 kilometres from its source in the Kosciusko National Park. It is fed by several rivers on it’s journey from the Australian Alps. The main feeding rivers are the Darling and Murrumbidgee Rivers. The Darling River (2,740 kilometres) begins in the far inland of Australia (Queensland) and joins the Murray at Wentworth (NSW) then flows to the Southern Ocean through South Australia.


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On which river bank did the Battle of the Hydaspes happen?

Battle of the Hydaspes, (326 BCE), fourth and last pitched battle fought by Alexander the Great during his campaign of conquest in Asia. The fight on the banks of the Hydaspes River in India was the closest Alexander the Great came to defeat. 

The battle took place on the east bank of the Hydaspes River (now called the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus River) in what is now the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Alexander later founded the city of Nicaea on the site; this city has yet to be discovered. Any attempt to find the ancient battle site is complicated by considerable changes to the landscape over time. For the moment, the most plausible location is just south of the city of Jhelum, where the ancient main road crossed the river and where a Buddhist source mentions a city that may be Nicaea. The identification of the battle site near modern Jalalpur/Haranpur is certainly erroneous, as the river (in ancient times) meandered far from these cities.

Alexander had to subdue King Porus in order to keep marching east.[citation needed] To leave such a strong opponent at his flanks would have endangered any further exploits. Alexander could not afford to show any weakness if he wanted to keep the loyalty of the already subdued Indian princes. Porus had to defend his kingdom and chose the perfect spot to check Alexander’s advance. Although he lost the battle, he became the most successful recorded opponent of Alexander.


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