Who were known as the Triumvirates?

          A triumvirate is a system of government where three people share the highest political power.

          The first triumvirate consisted of three strong Romans who held the power. They were Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey, who divided the Roman provinces.

          First triumvirate fell apart when a Parthian army attacked Rome and killed Crassus. In the meantime, Julius Caesar became the ruler, defeating Pompey. He seized power as a dictator in 48 BC. Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, at the height of his success.


          After Caesar’s death, the second triumvirate was established in 43 BC. It consisted of Octavian, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Mark Antony. Later, this triumvirate too ended. Thus Octavian became the sole ruler, and came to be known as Augustus Caesar. Octavian used Praetorian guards, which was the first military force stationed permanently in the capital.