Who was Philip II?

       Philip II was King of Macedonia. He ruled from 359 – 336 BC. When he came to power, Macedonia was in political and military turmoil, and Philip immediately set about bringing the people of Macedonia under his control.

       Philip made several military innovations that helped make Macedonia a great power.

       Philip’s military zenith was at the battle at Chaeronea in August of 338 BC. Philip’s army was greatly outnumbered by the Athenian and Theban forces, yet they over-whelmed the Athenians and Thebans. Athens and Thebes were forced to become subjects of Philip and Macedonia, leaving Sparta as the only Greek state not under Macedonian control.

       Philip gave freedom and autonomy to all the Greek city states that he conquered, yet he established a network of bureaucracies that would be stable and loyal to him.

       Then, with the support of all Greece, Philip declared war on Persia, and sent 10,000 troops into Asia Minor to begin liberating Greek cities along the coast. However, he died before he could achieve this dream, and it was left to his son Alexander the Great to realize it.