What is Laser and it’s major types?


A laser is a device that creates an intense beam of light called a laser beam. A laser beam is monochromatic: it is made up of light of just one colour of the spectrum. This means that all the light waves in it have the same wavelength. Just as importantly, all the waves are “in phase”, which means that as they leave the laser, their crests and troughs all line up with each other.

The lasing material is contained in a tube with a mirror at one end and half-silvered mirror at the other. Light bounces up and down, gaining strength until it is powerful enough to break out.

The word “laser” is short for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Inside the laser is lasing material, which can be a solid, a liquid or a gas. The atoms of the material are excited or “stimulated” by giving them energy, either in the form of light or electricity. This makes them emit light (a type of radiation), which in turn makes other atoms emit light of the same wavelength. This process creates an intense laser beam. The wavelength and so the colour, of a laser beam depends on the lasing material. Some lasers produce ultraviolet or infrared radiation rather than visible light. The first working laser was built by American physicist Theodore Maiman in 1960.

A high-power laser is being used to perform eye surgery. If the retina, the part of the eye that contains light-sensitive cells, becomes detached, a laser beam can stick it back in place.


The most common uses of lasers are playing compact discs and reading bar codes. These lasers are normally red lasers that use semiconductor lasing materials. They are low-power lasers, but they are still dangerous to look at directly. Low-power lasers are also used in communications, where they send signals along optical-fibre cables, in laser printers, in surveying, and for light shows. High-power lasers can be focused to create intense heat in materials. They are used in manufacturing for accurate cutting and in medicine for delicate surgery.

Picture Credit : Google