What is Human genome?

Human genome refers to the entire genetic make-up of humans. The genes giving rise to specific human characteristics, their variants and the regulatory genes that direct the functioning of other genes are collectively called the “human genome”. Roughly a lakh genes are contained in about three billion base pairs present in every human cell. The international effort known as the “Human genome project” has published a draft of the human genome. This will help identify and locate all the genes and their variants, as well understand their functioning. The project was aimed at producing a human genome map containing the entire sequence of nucleotides in the human DNA.

A better understanding of the human genome might help in diagnosing many hereditary diseases at an early stage or even before birth. It may also be helpful in finding cures for at least some of the hereditary diseases. Ultimately, the knowledge may also help to replace any defective or disease causing gene(s) with other gene(s) to restore health.